Why It Takes So Long to Diagnose Ankylosing Spondylitis


Carlos Julio Aponte, MD, board-certified rheumatologist and American College of Rheumatology member.

David Borenstein, MD, clinical professor of medicine, George Washington University Medical Center; partner, Arthritis and Rheumatism Associates, Washington, DC; executive editor, spinecommunity.com.

UpToDate: “Diagnosis and differential diagnosis of axial spondyloarthritis (ankylosing spondylitis and nonradiographic axial spondyloarthritis) in adults,” “Pathogenesis of spondyloarthritis.”

National Health Service (U.K.): “Ankylosing spondylitis.”

Spondylitis Association of America: “Diagnosis of Ankylosing Spondylitis.”

Johns Hopkins Arthritis Center: “Ankylosing Spondylitis.”

Current Rheumatology Reports: “Gender Differences in Axial Spondyloarthritis: Women Are Not So Lucky.”

Stanford Healthcare: “How is Ankylosing Spondylitis diagnosed?”

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